While the german version N#MMER already launched, the english version will be available soon in September 2015 and the worldwide first magazine for people with ADHD and autism edited and written by concerned people themselves. You’ll read interviews with Temple Grandin and Sascha Lobo and…
https://nummer-magazin.de/ see also https://twitter.com/Number_Magazine
a text about 47,XXY as symptomes of ADD/ADHD as well as autism are more prevalent in people with 47,XXY. In my opinion, the magazine covers a lot of difficulties concerning the behavior of people with 47,XXY. I had light bulb moments in nearly every text. As I wrote my text for N#MMER in October 2014, I didn’t have such profound knowledge about 47,XXY, and I looked for proof for any statement in the article. It’s the reason for which the text might have appeared in a school’s magazine rather and is clearly different compared with the other texts. Anyway, I hope I could raise awareness towards the characteristics of Klinefelter/47,XXY. American self-support organisations (like AXYS) assume that a certain number of people with 47,XXY is present among people with autism and ADHD.
To clarify: 47,XXY =/= autism spectrum disorders! The prevalence for autism (and ADHD) is significantly enhanced but far away from 100 % (rather between 10 and 30 % for autism).
Autism Spectrum Disorders and 47,XXY:
Figure 1: The diagram shows the results of the Social Responsiveness Score (SRS) measuring the degree of autistic traits.
- control group (con): 25
- extra X: 65 (cut-off for autism: 70)
- diagnosed people with autism (ASD): 95
Figure 2: The result of the ADI-R test of autism in the three core domains. The horizontal line depicts the threshold value for clinical relevance, the points mark the individual persons with 47,XXY.
10 persons lied above the cut-off in all domains, 11 persons in 2 domains and 13 in one domain. 17 persons were below the cut-off in all domains. The most prevalent domain has been communication (domain 2), the rarest domain has been stereotype behavior (domain 3). Altogether 27 % of people with 47,XXY fulfilled the diagnose criteria for autism spectrum disorder.
Source: Bruining et al. (2009) bzw. https://factsaboutklinefelter.com/verhalten/
ADHD and 47,XXY:
- Brian B. Doyle (2006) estimated 80 %
- Tartaglia et al. (2012) found about 36 %,with the vast majority favoring the inattentive subtype (ADD)
- Cederlöf et al. (2014) examined 86 000 controls and 860 47,XXY: 6 times higher risk of autism and ADHD.
- Skakkebaek et al. (2014) founds 63 % ADHD in 47,XXY
Thus there is strong evidence for a link between 47,XXY and ADHD/autism, besides the fact all three conditions show major impairments of executive functions.
- Bruining et al. (2009) suggests in figure 2 that domain 3 (rituals, routines and obsessive behavior) is weaker in 47,XXY than in idiopathic (male!) autism.
- Tartaglia et al. (2012) states that the quiet subtype of ADHD (also called ADD, without hyperactivity and impulsivity) is dominant in 47,XXY.
People with autism who reveal less symptoms of domain 3 (rocking, flapping, obsessive behavior, mainstream special interests) may be easily overlooked (-> high number of unknown cases in girls and women as well as ‚quiet‘ boys and men).
About 90 % of media reports about attention-deficit disorders deal with hyperactive and impulsive behavior although only 10 % of all tests confirm this diagnose. 30 % of all diagnoses present the inattentive subtype with quiet, non-disturbing dreamers. (the remaining 60 % present the combined type), source: http://weltsichtig.de/typisch-adhs-aber-halo/
Thus there is a large number of unknown cases, again in girls and women with ADD but also quiet boys and men).
If the phenotype of 47,XXY is similar to that of females with ADD and/or autism, both neurologic conditions will be discovered more infrequently in 47,XXY (boys with 47,XXY are often described as shy, passive and quiet).
Therefore it is important to use any opportunity to address these potential secondary diagnoses as therapeutical approaches, national support and accomodations are much better for people with ADHD and/or autism than for people with a diagnose „Klinefelter syndrome“. Moreover, addressing the hormone deficit is not sufficient to treat all side-effects of having Klinefelter syndrome:
Surprisingly, testosterone levels were not associated with these psychological and social health measures, even though low testosterone has been widely believed to underlie many of these symptoms. “Based on this finding, it is not clear that the testosterone therapy commonly given during puberty will remedy many of the problems that children with Klinefelter syndrome experience,” says Dr. Fennoy.
Whether hormonal therapy plays a role during development or not, the researchers emphasize that early intervention to address psychosocial health risks will help patients and their families manage some of the chronic aspects of Klinefelter syndrome.
What people with 47,XXY and relatives can do:
If you have the feeling there is more to you than low testosterone values and associated infertility, go to a psychiatrist or psychologist.
When people with 47,XXY are bullied in school, physical appearance may be the cause (weak muscles, body composition, breast development, shame having a shower or in the changing room) but also autistic behavior (difficulties with coordination, shyness, bluntness, naivety, imitating others, isolation and more prone to be a victim). Please take care of your children not to be in agony throughout their school time! They will suffer from bullying, post-traumatic anxiety and depression also throughout their lifetime.
Receiving a dual or secondary diagnose will provide additional therapy approaches and support besides hormone replacement therapy.
It’s essential to inform your environment and the relative’s environment about 47,XXY. If physical symptomes are merely present but behaviorial symptomes are more obvious, it probably makes no sense to hold a long talk about Klinefelter syndrome. A lot of people who are not familiar with Klinefelter may conclude that Klinefelter is equivalent for hormone deficit, needs hormone therapy and subsequent all deficits will be cured. Then it’s possibly more senseful to inform about the secondary diagnose. The genetic reason is rather interesting for academics.
Draw your information and guidelines from concerned people themselves! I linked numberous autistic bloggers in my blog writing about their life and everydaylife with autism. Be skeptical when doubtful things arise like cure of autism with helpf of diets, glute-free food, homeopathy, MMS, etc. A great majority of enlightened people with autism rejects ABA and Autism-Speaks.
Read and spread the word for N#MBER! Diagnosed 47,XXY could be helped with additional diagnoses addressing their psychosocial health. Diagnosed people with autism and/or ADHD might have a genetic underpinning of their presumed primary diagnose. It doesn’t mean that the diagnose is wrong but physical health may also play a role, like enhanced risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.